Irish Catholics call the city Derry. Irish Protestants call it Londonderry, its legal name, for it is in Northern Ireland, not the Republic of Ireland.
The River Foyle divides the city, with Protestants living largely on the east bank, and Catholics on the west.
For so many years, random and targeted killings were commonplace, Catholics and Protestants killing each other. The nearby political border was a heavily fortified military zone until the conclusion of a lengthy peace process that stretched from the historic Good Friday Agreement of 1998 to the signing of the definitive accord of 2007 that closed the fear-saturated period euphemistically known as "the troubles."
Today, the political border remains, though scarcely discernible. Physical barriers and checkpoints have been removed and there remain only subtle indications that one is crossing a border, such as a modest sign advising motorists to adjust from miles to kilometers.